Reptile Leukocyte Profiles Home

The table below lists the leukocyte profiles (percentage of cells) for reptiles from published and unpublished sources. The mean percentage of each cell type (lymphocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes) is given, along with the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, which is useful to gauge the level of stress of the animals (see review paper in further reading page). If the study was an experiment, only the values from control animals is listed. References are listed below the table. This list was compiled after many long hours at a library and at the microscope. If you know of other publications, or have data to add, contact akdavis(at)uga.edu.

Last Updated Dec 30 2011

Species Group Age N Wild/Captive Lympho. Hetero. Eosino. Baso. Mono. H/L Ratio Source Notes
Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor amarali) Snake Adult 25 Captive 49.7 15.2 0.0 0.0 27.7 0.31 Machado et al. 2006  
Puff adder (Bitis arietans) Snake Juvenile 7 Captive 81.5 14.8 2.0 0.5 1.8 0.18 Otis 1973  
Banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus) Snake Adult 7 Wild 65.8 4.7 0.5 0.0 28.3 0.07 Salakij et al. 2003  
King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Snake Adult 28 Wild 58.4 15.0 0.1 0.1 21.6 0.26 Salakij et al. 2002 December group
Puff-faced watersnake (Homalopsis buccata) Snake Adult 28 Captive 41.3 15.3 6.5 0.1 36.6 0.37 Salakij et al. 2002 non-infected group
Pitviper (Bothrops alternatus) Snake Adult 50 Captive 51.4 12.0 15.2 1.3 20.1 0.23 Troiano et al. 2000  
Bothrops jararacussu Snake Adult 50 Captive 50.6 13.1 16.5 0.5 19.7 0.26 Troiano et al. 2000  
Bothrops moojeni Snake Adult 50 Captive 51.1 12.8 15.7 0.9 19.5 0.25 Troiano et al. 2000  
Bothrops n. diporus Snake Adult 50 Captive 52.0 11.9 15.0 0.8 21.2 0.23 Troiano et al. 2000  
Brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) Snake Adult 53 Captive 71.0 4.0 0.0 2.9 22.1 0.06 Lamirande et al. 1999  
Ball python (Python regius) Snake Adult 30 Captive 52.8 40.6 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.77 Fudge 1998  
Ball python (Python regius) Snake Adult 20 Captive 14.0 61.5 0.0 1.1 17.3 4.39 Johnson and Benson 1996  
Eastern Massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus c. catenatus) Snake Adult 20 Wild 32.5 14.4 1.3 1.0 10.0 0.44 Allender et al. 2005  
South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) Snake Adult 30 Captive 56.3 6.0 13.0 1.5 23.3 0.11 Troiano et al. 1997  
Anaconda (Eunectes murinus) Snake Adult 24 Wild 40.3 23.5 0.0 1.0 6.9 0.58 Calle et al. 1994  
Jungle Carpet Python (Morelia spilota cheynei) Snake Adult 8 Captive 43.0 53.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 1.23 Centini and Klaphake 2002  
Average for all snakes - - - 53.2 17.1 5.7 0.9 17.4 0.36 - records with H/L above 2.0 not included in average (animals probably stressed)
Standard deviation - - - 12.5 13.2 7.1 0.8 10.8 0.31 - Averages and standard deviations change as new data are added
                       
Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) Croc Adult 7 Captive 26.3 63.8 8.0 0.0 1.7 2.43 Stacy and Whitaker 2000  
Spectacled Caiman (Caiman c. crocodilus) Croc Adult 40 Wild 20.5 53.0 14.0 4.5 8.0 2.59 Rossini et al. 2011 values from males only
Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) Croc Adult 45 Wild 50.6 37.4 5.5 3.5 3.0 0.74 Glassman et al. 1981  
Average for all crocs - - - 32.5 51.4 9.2 2.7 4.2 1.92 - -
Standard deviation - - - 16.0 13.3 4.4 2.4 3.3 1.02 - Averages and standard deviations change as new data are added
                       
Green iguana (Iguana iguana) Lizard Adult 10 Captive 53.7 27.5 0.6 4.4 7.1 0.51 Knotkova et al. 2006 control group
Green iguana (Iguana iguana) Lizard Adult 11 Captive 52.4 33.0 1.6 4.9 8.1 0.63 Pejrilova et al. 2004 36 month group
Green iguana (Iguana iguana) Lizard Adult 15 Captive 64.2 23.8 0.7 2.6 8.6 0.37 Harr et al. 2001 male values
Green iguana (Iguana iguana) Lizard Adult 32 Captive 60.6 30.8 0.8 0.6 6.3 0.51 Hanley et al. 2004 control values only
Green iguana (Iguana iguana) Lizard Adult 886 Captive 42.6 56.7 0.3 0.9 3.0 1.33 Fudge 1998  
Green iguana (Iguana iguana) Lizard Adult 10 Captive 57.0 27.6 0.5 4.5 10.4 0.48 Divers et al. 1996 Averages computed from raw data given in paper
Grand Cayman Blue Iguana (Cyclura nubila lewisi) Lizard Adult 10 Captive 40.0 35.0 2.0 15.0 3.0 0.88 Fisse et al. 2004  
Allen Cays Rock Iguana (Cyclura cyclura inornata) Lizard Adult 37 Wild 18.5 61.5 1.7 7.5 4.1 3.32 James et al. 2006  
Cuban Iguana (Cyclura nubila) Lizard Juvenile 26 Captive 79.7 9.7 1.4 5.4 4.0 0.12 Alberts et al. 1998  
Cuban Iguana (Cyclura nubila) Lizard Juvenile 13 Wild 35.2 49.5 0.5 5.2 9.6 1.41 Alberts et al. 1998  
Black-chested Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura melanosterna) Lizard Adult 50 Wild 67.5 18.9 0.0 4.2 9.4 0.28 Davis et al. 2011  
Chinese water dragon (Physignathus cocincinus) Lizard Adult 12 Captive 53.3 37.7 1.5 3.7 8.1 0.71 Mayer et al. 2005  
Chinese water dragon (Physignathus cocincinus) Lizard Adult 22 Captive 44.9 35.2 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.78 Fudge 1998  
Inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) Lizard Adult 21 Captive 59.0 27.0 0.0 9.0 5.0 0.46 Eliman 1997  
Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) Lizard Adult 8 Wild 25.0 56.0 0.0 0.5 9.0 2.24 Cuadrado et al. 2002 Healthy females only, post-reproduction
Moorish gecko (Tarentola mauritanica) Lizard Adult 21 Wild 42.4 32.6 22.2 2.7 0.1 0.77 Sacchi et al. 2007  
Podarcis muralis Lizard Adult 81 Wild 63.0 15.5 13.5 7.4 0.4 0.25 Sacchi et al. 2011  
Algyroides nigropunctatus Lizard Adult 7 Wild 67.0 15.7 7.7 8.9 0.4 0.23 Sacchi et al. 2011  
Podarcis bocagei Lizard Adult 11 Wild 63.9 7.9 12.7 13.6 0.7 0.12 Sacchi et al. 2011  
Podarcis melisellensis Lizard Adult 11 Wild 73.6 11.4 9.7 5.1 0.1 0.15 Sacchi et al. 2011  
Podarcis sicula Lizard Adult 10 Wild 66.8 9.0 9.3 12.3 2.1 0.13 Sacchi et al. 2011  
Podarcis tiliguerta Lizard Adult 8 Wild 60.3 7.1 16.8 11.8 0.5 0.12 Sacchi et al. 2011  
Argentine tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) Lizard Adult 50 Captive 45.0 13.0 24.5 1.9 17.0 0.29 Troiano et al. 2008  
Sand lizard (Leiolepis belliana rubritaeniata) Lizard Adult 80 Wild 48.1 28.9 2.3 11.6 9.1 0.60 Ponsen et al. 2008  
Prehensile-tailed skink (Corucia zebtrata) Lizard Adult 20 Captive 21.5 36.7 4.3 15.1 22.7 1.71 Wright and Skeba 1992  
El Hierro giant lizard (Gallotia simonyi) Lizard Adult 9 Captive 13.6 39.0 3.7 20.5 22.7 2.87 Silvestre et al. 2004  
La Gomera giant lizard (Gallotia bravoana) Lizard Adult 6 Captive 8.5 58.4 2.1 7.0 23.9 6.87 Silvestre et al. 2004  
Tenerife giant lizard (Gallotia intermedia) Lizard Adult 4 Captive 22.6 50.1 2.9 15.8 8.3 2.22 Silvestre et al. 2004  
Spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx microlepis ) Lizard Adult 24 Wild 21.0 72.0 1.0 0.0 6.0 3.43 Elamin 2004  
Spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx spp.) Lizard Adult 76 Wild 32.1 64.4 1.3 0.8 1.3 2.01 Naldo et al. 2009  
Average for all lizards - - - 54.9 25.7 5.8 6.6 5.9 0.56 - records with H/L above 2.0 not included in average (animals probably stressed)
Standard deviation - - - 13.5 13.4 7.5 4.6 5.8 0.44 - Averages and standard deviations change as new data are added
                         
Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) Monitor Adult 16 Wild 15.6 56.6 6.3 0.9 20.8 3.63 Espinosa-Aviles et al. 2008
Crocodile monitor (Varanus salvadorii) Monitor Adult 5 Zoo 15.0 48.0 0.0 2.0 36.0 3.20 Fontenot et al. 2004  
Average for all monitor lizards - - - 15.3 52.3 3.2 1.5 28.4 3.41 - -
Standard deviation - - - 0.4 6.1 4.5 0.8 10.7 0.30 - Averages and standard deviations change as new data are added
                       
Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Sea Turtle Adult 26 Wild 72.4 10.1 12.3 0.0 5.8 0.14 Work et al. 1998  
Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Sea Turtle Adult 20 Wild 17.1 65.7 14.3 0.3 3.8 3.84 Samour et al. 1998 Males only, all turtles held upside-down for 45 min before sampling
Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Sea Turtle Adult 20 Captive 69.0 6.0 14.0 9.0 0.0 0.09 Wood and Ebanks 1984  
Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Sea Turtle Juvenile 5 Wild 67.8 16.0 12.0 6.8 0.0 0.16 Aguirre et al. 1995 initial samples of healthy individuals only - all turtles sampled within 2 min of capture
Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Sea Turtle Adult 18 Rehab center 14.4 77.8 3.1 0.0 4.6 5.40 Rossi et al. 2009 uninfected group
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtle Adult 39 Wild 30.2 40.8 12.8 0.0 10.6 1.35 Deem et al. 2009 Foraging group
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtle Adult 15 Wild 65.0 27.0 6.0 0.0 3.0 0.42 Stamper et al. 2005 Resident group
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtle Juvenile 5 Captive 58.4 37.1 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.64 Kakizoe et al. 2007 raised in captivity, 12 month values used
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtle Adult 61 Captive 42.4 48.2 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.14 Kakizoe et al. 2007 all females bred in captivity
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtle Adult 34 Wild 18.8 68.8 18.8

<1

0.6 3.65 Casal et al. 2009 all adults were breeding
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtle Juvenile 69

Rehab center

16.9 77.9 3.4 <1 1.2 4.61 Casal et al. 2009 all individuals were stranded, brought to rehab center
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtle Juvenile 7 Rehab center 20.7 70.3 5.3 0.4 3.3 3.40 Bradley et al. 1998 12 month values used
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Sea Turtle Juvenile 13 Wild 71.4 32.3 8.3 0.2 6.0 0.45 Keller et al. 2004  
Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) Sea Turtle Adult 26 Wild 35.5 53.3 2.2 0.0 4.4 1.50 Deem et al. 2006 All samples from nesting females
Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) Sea Turtle Adult 142 Rehab center 23.0 70.0 0.0 0.4 6.0 3.04 Innis et al. 2009 samples from turtles upon arrival to rehab center after cold-stunning
Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) Sea Turtle Adult 15 Rehab center 35.0 55.0 2.0 0.8 7.0 1.57 Innis et al. 2009 sample from same turtles after 6 mo in rehab
Average for all sea turtles - - - 54.7 32.6 7.0 1.7 4.0 0.75 - records with H/L above 2.0 not included in average (animals probably stressed)
Standard deviation - - - 17.0 17.6 5.6 3.3 3.5 0.59 - Averages and standard deviations change as new data are added
                       
Mediteranean pond turtle (Mauremys leprosa) Turtle Adult 26 Wild 6.3 53.8 35.3 0.0 4.3 8.54 Hidalgo-Vila et al. 2007 Males
Central American river turtle (Dermatemys mawii) Turtle Adult 22 Wild 39.5 44.0 11.5 1.0 4.5 1.11 Rangel-Mendoza et al. 2009
Central American river turtle (Dermatemys mawii) Turtle Adult 29 Captive 50.5 30.5 19.5 0.0 0.0 0.60 Rangel-Mendoza et al. 2009
Bog turtle (Clemmys muhlenbergii) Turtle Adult 11 Wild 48.0 22.0 1.0 15.0 5.0 0.46 Brenner et al. 2002 Males only
Pascagoula map turtle (Grapemys gibbonsi) Turtle Adult 12 Captive 25.3 13.3 3.3 47.5 6.3 0.52 Perpinan et al 2008  
Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) Turtle Adult 90 Wild 25.2 38.2 2.1 1.0 5.3 1.52 Chaffin et al. 2008  
Northern red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys rubriventris) Turtle Juvenile 10 Captive-reared 29.3 9.2 6.7 54.8 0.4 0.31 Innis et al. 2007 Institution 1
Yellow-bellied Slider (Trachemys scripta) Turtle Adult 50 Captive 14.4 10.1 12.4 36.9 24.1 0.70 Taylor and Kaplan 1961  
Yellow-headed temple turtle (Hieremys annandalii) Turtle Adult 12 Wild 16.8 42.7 33.1 0.3 7.1 2.54 Assawawongkasem et al. 2008  
New Giunea snapping turtle (Elseya novaeguineae) Turtle Adult 58 Captive 45.1 34.5 0.0 4.4 6.2 0.76 Anderson et al. 1997
Asian yellow pond turtle (Ocadia sinensis) Turtle Adult 50 Captive 22.3 37.4 19.0 6.8 1.6 1.68 Chung et al. 2009
Amazon freshwater turtle (Podocnemis expansa) Turtle Adult 28 Captive 15.4 48.0 22.6 7.8 6.3 3.12 Oliveira-Junior et al. 2009
Amazon freshwater turtle (Podocnemis expansa) Turtle Adult 101 Captive 34.0 63.5 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.87 Martinez et al. 2007
 
Amazon freshwater turtle (Podocnemis expansa) Turtle Adult 28 Turtle farm 16.3 46.0 22.8 8.3 6.6 2.82 Tavares-Dias et al. 2009 Control group only
Geoffroy's side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus)
Turtle Adult 29 Wild 40.4 33.3 17.4 6.5 2.5 0.82 Ferronato et al. 2009
 
Average for all aquatic turtles - - - 36.0 32.6 8.1 13.8 3.3 0.97 - records with H/L above 2.0 not included in average (animals probably stressed)
Standard deviation - - - 10.2 15.6 8.0 20.3 2.4 0.55 - Averages and standard deviations change as new data are added
                       
Asian box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) Tortoise Adult 7 Captive 20.5 32.5 20.5 24.5 5.0 1.59 Perpinan et al 2008  
Box turtle (Terrapene carolina) Tortoise Adult 104 Captive 45.7 44.3 0.2 1.9 1.1 0.97 Fudge 1998  
Flowerback Box Turtle (Cistoclemmys (Cuora) g. galbinifrons) Tortoise Adult 4 Captive 23.5 40.0 13.6 14.6 2.7 1.70 World Chelonian Trust Website  
Marginated tortoise (Testudo marginata) Tortoise Adult 7 Captive 55.0 33.3 8.7 0.0 0.7 0.61 Lopez-Olvera et al. 2003 dorsal coccygeal vein values
Russian tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldi) Tortoise Adult 20 Captive 46.7 37.2 4.8 5.0 6.3 0.80 Knotkova et al. 2002  
Russian tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldi) Tortoise Adult 5 Captive 57.2 27.6 4.2 3.8 6.6 0.48 Hajkova et al. 2000  
Burmese Mountain Tortoise (Manouria emys) Tortoise Adult 7 Captive 45.9 40.3 7.3 4.7 7.2 0.88 World Chelonian Trust Website  
Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni) Tortoise Adult 6 Wild 60.0 34.7 0.1 4.9 0.4 0.58 Neiffer et al. 2005 control values only
Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni) Tortoise Adult 10 Captive 22.9 46.9 25.5 1.5 2.3 2.04 Muro et al. 1998 diff-quick samples
Hermann’s tortoise (Testudo hermanni) Tortoise Adult 37 Captive 48.4 20.2 21.9 0.7 8.8 0.42 Galeotti et al. 2005 all males in seminatural enclosures
Spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) Tortoise Adult 10 Captive 60.3 36.1 6.2 <1 <1 0.60 Lawrence and Hawkey 1986 means estimated from Fig. 1 in paper, average of all samples
Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Tortoise Adult 171 Wild 11.9 52.5 1.3 20.7 0.0 4.41 Christopher et al. 1999 summer values only
Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Tortoise Adult 106 Captive 37.8 56.5 0.9 2.4 0.7 1.49 Fudge 1998  
Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Tortoise Adult 36 Wild 12.4 71.7 3.3 10.2 2.4 5.78 Dickenson et al. 2002
males only , all sampled 6 hours after capture
Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Tortoise Adult 300 Captive 37.5 47.5 2.0 8.5 2.5 1.26 Rosskopf 1982 means estimated from reference ranges given
Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Tortoise Adult 10 Captive 12.8 65.5 5.0 9.3 7.0 5.12 Gottdenker and Jacobson 1995 values from postoccipital samples, all tortoises shipped from Nevada to Florida before sampling
Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Tortoise Adult 23 Wild 23.0 33.0 1.0 30.0 13.0 1.43 Alleman et al. 1992  
Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Tortoise Adult 4 Wild 30.0 36.0 2.0 16.0 12.0 1.20 Jacobson et al. 1991  
Leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis) Tortoise Adult 21 Captive 14.8 47.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.20 Fudge 1998  
Texas tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) Tortoise Adult 29 Captive 34.7 51.2 0.0 1.6 0.0 1.48 Fudge 1998  
Radiated totoise (Geochelone radiata) Tortoise Adult 18 Captive 43.3 40.9 0.1 14.4 1.2 0.94 Zaias et al. 2006
Radiated totoise (Geochelone radiata) Tortoise Adult 10 Captive 37.2 46.5 4.1 7.9 3.5 1.25 Marks and Citino 1990
Gopher toroise (Gopherus polyphemus) Tortoise Adult 28 Wild 46.3 24.3 17.9 7.2 4.2 0.52 McCoy et al. 2005 2001 samples
Gopher toroise (Gopherus polyphemus) Tortoise Adult 13 Captive 56.6 30.3 0.0 5.7 7.4 0.54 Taylor and Jacobson 1982
Gopher toroise (Gopherus polyphemus) Tortoise Adult 57 Wild 35.1 40.0 0.0 5.7 19.2 1.14 Diaz-Figueroa 2005
values estimated from ranges given
Average for all terrestrial turtles - - - 42.2 37.6 5.8 8.0 5.1 0.99 - records with H/L above 2.0 not included in average (animals probably stressed)
Standard deviation - - - 12.3 8.9 7.2 8.1 5.1 0.42 - Averages and standard deviations change as new data are added

 

Reference List for Reptile Leukocyte Profiles

Aguirre, A. A., G. H. Balazs, T. R. Spraker, and T. S. Gross. 1995. Adrenal and hematological responses to stress in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) with and without fibropapillomas. Physiological Zoology 68: 831-854.

Alberts, A. C., M. L. Oliva, M. B. Worley, S. R. Telford, P. J. Morris, and D. L. Janssen. 1998. The need for pre-release health screening in animal translocations: a case study of the Cuban iguana (Cyclura nubila). Animal Conservation 1: 165-172.

Alleman, A. R., E. R. Jacobson, and R. E. Raskin. 1992. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from the desert tortoise (Gorpherus agassizii). American Journal of Veterinary Research 53: 1645-1651.

Allender, M. C., M. A. Mitchell, C. A. Phillips, and V. R. Beasley. 2005. Health assessment and disease survey in the eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) in Illinois. Proceedings of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians: 34-35.

Anderson, N. L., R. F. Wack, and R. Hatcher. 1997. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges for clinically normal, captive new guinea snapping turtle (Elseya novaeguineae) and the effects of temperature, sex, and sample type. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 28: 394-403.

Assawawongkasem, N., A. Sailasuta, J. Tangtongpiroj, and N. Chansue. 2008. Hematological data of Hemogregarine infections in adult yellow-headed turtles (Hieremys annandalii). Proceedings of the 7th Chula. University Veterinary Science Annual Conference: 65.

Bradley, T. A., T. Norton, and K. S. Latimer. 1998. Hemogram values, morphological characteristics of blood cells and morphometric study of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the first year of life. Bulletin of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians 8: 8-16.

Brenner, D., G. Lewbart, M. Stebbins, and D. W. Herman. 2002. Health survey of wild and captive bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii) in North Carolina and Virginia. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 33: 311-316.

Calle, P. P., J. Rivas, M. Munoz, J. Thorbjarnarson, E. S. Dierenfeld, W. Holmstrom, W. E. Braselton, and W. B. Karesh. 1994. Health assessment of free-ranging anacondas (Eunectes murinus) in Venezuela. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 25: 53-62.

Casal, A. B., M. Camacho, L. F. Lopez-Jurado, C. Juste, and J. Oros. 2009. Comparative study of hematologic and plasma biochemical variables in Eastern Atlantic juvenile and adult nesting loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Veterinary Clinical Pathology 38: 213-218.

Centini, R., and E. Klaphake. 2002. Hematologic values and cytology in a population of captive jungle carpet pythons, Morelia spilota cheynei. Proceedings of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians: 107-111.

Chaffin, K., T. M. Norton, K. Gilardi, R. Poppenga, J. B. Jensen, P. Moler, C. Cray, E. S. Dierenfeld, T. Chen, M. Oliva, F. C. Origgi, S. Gibbs, L. Mazzaro, and J. Mazet. 2008. Health assessment of free-ranging alligator snapping turtles (Macrochelys temminckii) in Georgia and Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44: 670-686.

Christopher, M. M., K. H. Berry, I. R. Wallis, K. A. Nagy, B. T. Henen, and C. C. Peterson. 1999. Reference intervals and physiologic alterations in hematologic and biochemical values of free-ranging desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 35: 212-238.

Chung, C. S., C. H. Cheng, S. C. Chin, A. H. Lee, and C. H. Chi. 2009. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of Asian yellow pond turtle (Ocadia sinensis) blood cells and their hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40: 76-85.

Cuadrado, M., C. Diaz-Paniagua, M. A. Quevedo, J. M. Aguilar, and I. M. Prescott. 2002. Hematology and clinical chemistry in dystocic and healthy post-reproductive female chameleons. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38: 395-401.

Davis, A. K., L. E. Ruyle, and J. C. Maerz. 2011. Effect of trapping method on leukocyte profiles of black-chested spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura melanosterna): implications for zoologists in the field. ISRN Zoology 2011. doi:10.5402/2011/384825.

Diaz-Figueroa, O. 2005. Characterizing the health status of the louisiana gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Unpubl. masters thesis. Louisiana State University.

Deem, S. L., E. S. Dierenfeld, G. P. Sounguet, A. R. Alleman, C. Cray, R. H. Poppeng, T. M. Norton, and W. B. Karesh. 2006. Blood values in free-ranging nesting leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) on the coast of the Republic of Gabon. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37: 464-471.

Deem, S. L., T. M. Norton, M. Mitchell, A. Segars, A. R. Alleman, C. Cray, R. H. Poppenga, M. Dodd, and W. B. Karesh. 2009. Comparison of blood values in foraging, nesting, and stranded loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) along the coast of Georgia, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45: 41-56.

Dickinson, V. M., J. L. Jarchow, and M. H. Trueblood. 2002. Hematology and plasma biochemistry reference range values for free-ranging desert tortoises in Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38: 143-153.

Divers, S. J., Redmayne, G. & Aves, E. K. 1996 Haematological and biochemical values of 10 green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Veterinary Record 138, 203-205.

Elamin, B. 2004. Dynamics of blood biochemistry and hematology in the spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx microlepis). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 11: 55-65.

Eliman, M. M. 1997. Hematology and plasma chemistry of the inland bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps. Bulletin of the Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians.

Espinosa-Aviles, D., V. M. Salomon-Soto, and S. Morales-Martinez. 2008. Hematology, blood chemistry, and bacteriology of the free-ranging Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39: 21-27.

Ferronato, B. O., A. Genoy-Puerto, C. I. Piña, F. L. Souza, L. M. Verdade, and E. R. Matushima. 2009. Notes on the hematology of free-living Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae) in polluted rivers of Southeastern Brazil. Zoologica 26: 795-798.

Fisse, A., M. Draud, B. Raphael, and K. Melkonian. 2004. Differential leukocyte counts of critically endangered grand cayman blue iguanas, Cyclura nubila lewisi. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 14: 19-21.

Ferronato, B. O., A. Genoy-Puerto, C. I. Piña, F. L. Souza, L. M. Verdade, and E. R. Matushima. 2009. Notes on the hematology of free-living Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae) in polluted rivers of Southeastern Brazil. Zoologica 26: 795-798.

Fontenot, D. K., N. Lamberski, and S. Pfaff. 2004. Physical, hematologic, and plasma biochemistry values of five crocodile monitors, Varanus salvadorii. Journal of Herpetological Medicine and Surgery 14: 5-9.

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