Further Reading about Leukocytes

If you are looking for help with cell identification of amphibians, the following two sources can help:

Atlas of Xenopus Hematology (Hadji-Azimi et al. 1987, in Developmental and Comparative Immunology). This is one of the best publications around on amphibian leukocytes. This is a scanned color copy from the journal. It is a large file!

Amphibian blood cells, by Turner 1988 - a chapter from the book, 'Vertebrate Blood Cells'. A scanned version.

Also, there is a recent overview of amphibian hematology in a recent issue of Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice:

Allender, M.C., and M.M. Fry. 2008. Amphibian hematology, pp. 463-480. In T. L. Hadley [ed.], Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice: Hematology and Related Disorders. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.


For avian cells, there are a number of veterinary texts with good sections on identifying cells and their functions. A few good ones are:

Campbell, T.W. 1995. Avian Hematology and Cytology. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Fudge, A.M. 2000. Laboratory medicine. Avian and exotic pets. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia

Rupley, A.E. 1997. Manual of Avian Practice. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia PA, USA.

If you can find this book in your library, it is definitely helpful for avian and reptilian cell identification:

Hawkey, C.M., and T.B. Dennett. 1989. Color Atlas of Comparative Veterinary Hematology. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

This online paper is a nice overview of hematology of amphibians and reptiles:

Hematology of Lower Vertebrates (Campbell 2004)

This paper from the Isreal Journal of Veterinary Medicine (Pendl, no date), also has good info on avian and reptilian red blood cells, and for making blood smears. Link here to paper.


The papers below may be of use in interpreting leukocyte counts:

Review paper on stress and leukocytes in vertebrates (Davis et al. 2008, in Functional Ecology).

Paper showing how leukocytes change through development in larval amphibians (Davis 2009, in Comparative Clinical Pathology).


The links below are also useful: