Avian Leukocyte Profiles Home

The table below lists the leukocyte profiles (percentage of cells) for birds from published and unpublished sources. The mean percentage of each cell type (lymphocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes) is given, along with the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, which is useful to gauge the level of stress of the animals (see review paper in further reading page). If the study was an experiment, only the values from control animals is listed. References are listed below the table. This list was compiled after many long hours at a library and at the microscope. If you know of other publications, or have data to add, contact akdavis(at)uga.edu.

Last Updated April 1, 2012

Species Group N

Status

Lympho. Hetero. Eosino. Baso. Mono. H/L Ratio Source Notes
Kori Bustard Bustard 13 Reared 46.0 41.4 2.5 2.1 8.0 0.90 Howlett et al. 1998  
Houbara Bustard Bustard 4 Reared 52.5 40.9 0.5 2.2 4.1 0.78 Howlett et al. 2002  
Rufous-crested Bustard Bustard 5 Reared 58.5 25.9 5.0 1.2 9.3 0.44 Howlett et al. 2002  
White-bellied Bustard Bustard 5 Reared 46.2 40.0 1.1 4.6 7.9 0.87 Howlett et al. 2002  
Little Black Bustard Bustard 4 Captive 46.6 37.2 2.2 5.1 8.7 0.80 D'Aloia et al. 1996  
Heuglin's Bustard Bustard 5 Captive 45.0 36.6 2.8 3.3 9.7 0.81 D'Aloia et al. 1996  
White-bellied Bustard Bustard 3 Captive 40.1 43.6 3.8 5.0 7.2 1.09 D'Aloia et al. 1996  
Average for all bustards - - - 47.9 37.9 2.6 3.3 7.8 0.81 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 5.9 5.9 1.6 1.6 1.9 0.19 -  
Common Crane Crane 15 Wild 35.8 55.4 3.7 1.9 3.4 1.55 Puerta et al. 1990  
Common Crane Crane 4 Zoo 24.0 48.0 21.0 3.5 4.0 2.00 Hawkey et al. 1983  
Manchurian Crane Crane 9 Zoo 20.0 72.0 3.6 2.4 0.0 3.60 Hawkey et al. 1983  
Demoiselle Crane Crane 11 Zoo 19.0 73.0 4.0 2.4 1.8 3.84 Hawkey et al. 1983  
Stanley Crane Crane 3 Zoo 36.0 39.0 22.0 2.7 1.0 1.08 Hawkey et al. 1983  
Crowned Crane Crane 22 Zoo 15.0 76.0 5.0 3.0 0.7 5.07 Hawkey et al. 1983  
Average for all cranes - - - 25.0 60.6 9.9 2.7 1.8 2.86 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 8.9 15.3 9.0 0.6 1.6 1.55 -  
Black-legged Kittiwake Gull/Tern 10 Wild 62.0 30.0 5.0 0.0 2.0 0.48 Newman et al. 1997  
Glaucous-winged gull Gull/Tern 8 Wild 43.0 53.0 3.0 0.0 1.0 1.23 Newman et al. 1997  
Great black-backed gull Gull/Tern 34 Wild 61.0 35.2 0.7 2.0 2.2 0.58 Averbeck 1992  
Herring Gull Gull/Tern 103 Wild 60.9 35.5 0.9 2.0 1.3 0.58 Averbeck 1992  
Herring Gull Gull/Tern 152 Wild 35.3 56.7 0.3 2.9 4.8 1.61 Grasman et al. 2000  
Sooty Tern Gull/Tern 34 Wild 67.3 24.7 5.8 1.3 0.8 0.37 Work 1996  
Common Tern Gull/Tern 33 Wild 51.0 38.0 9.1 0.0 5.6 0.75 Fiorello et al. 2009  
Average for all gulls - - - 54.4 39.0 3.5 1.2 2.5 0.80 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 11.7 11.7 3.3 1.2 1.9 0.45 -  
Cirl Bunting Passerine 17 Wild 56.3 37.4 5.6 0.0 0.6 0.66 Figuerola et al. 1999  
Common Grackle Passerine 5 Wild 73.0 14.1 5.79 7.1 0.0 0.19 Davis, unpubl. data  
American Robin Passerine 8 Wild 68.5 20.7 7.4 2.4 0.9 0.30 Ricklefs and Sheldon 2007  
Clay-colored Robin Passerine 27 Wild 69.9 10.5 6.8 1.2 11.4 0.15 Ricklefs and Sheldon 2007  
Great Tit Passerine 77 Wild 68.5 19.6 5.6 5.6 1.0 0.29 Hauptmanova et al. 2002  
Hermit Thrush Passerine 28 Wild 69.1 11.6 9.3 9.7 0.3 0.17 Davis et al. 2008  
House Finch Passerine 65 Wild 79.0 5.0 7.0 8.0 2.0 0.06 Davis et al. 2004  
Red Bishop Passerine 91 Wild 41.8 33.7 10.5 10.4 3.7 0.81 Friedl and Edler 2005  
Rufous-collared sparrow Passerine 75 Wild 71.4 20.2 2.3 3.1 2.9 0.28 Ruiz et al. 2002  
Song Sparrow Passerine 9 Wild 83.3 11.6 4.0 0.7 0.0 0.14 Davis et al. 2004  
Zebra finch Passerine 11 Reared 83.0 11.1 2.1 0.0 3.7 0.13 Smits and Williams 1999  
Northern Cardinal Passerine 37 Wild 84.9 11.2 1.8 1.5 0.8 0.13 Maney et al. 2008  
Dark-eyed Junco Passerine 5 Wild 91.6 3.1 3.1 1.8 0.4 0.03 Davis, unpubl. data  
Pine Siskin Passerine 10 Wild 68.5 11.5 5.6 14.2 0.2 0.17 Davis, unpubl. data  
Tufted Titmouse Passerine 6 Wild 78.5 5.6 9.2 3.9 3.0 0.07 Davis, unpubl. data  
House Sparrow Passerine 8 Captive 33.1 53.3 4.4 1.1 8.1 1.61 Nava et al. 2000  
Pied Flycatcher Passerine 134 Wild 59.4 19.1 3.2 15.1 3.3 0.32 Juan Moreno, pers. comm.  
Hooded Crow Passerine 42 Wild 66.0 19.7 3.7 1.3 6.7 0.30 Acquarone et al. 2001  
Hawfinch Passerine 12 Wild 59.0 37.0 1.0 2.0 1.0 0.63 Hauptmanova et al. 2004  
Double-barred finch Passerine 41 Wild 86.5 10.8 0.9 0.0 2.7 0.12 Tidemann et al. 1992  
Pictorella finch Passerine 19 Wild 89.7 8.7 0.2 0.0 1.6 0.10 Tidemann et al. 1992  
Long-tailed finch Passerine 81 Wild 86.1 10.1 0.7 0.0 3.1 0.12 Tidemann et al. 1992  
Masked finch Passerine 30 Wild 88.2 9.3 0.4 0.0 2.8 0.11 Tidemann et al. 1992  
Star finch Passerine 77 Wild 88.7 8.5 0.5 0.0 2.8 0.10 Tidemann et al. 1992  
Zebra finch Passerine 141 Wild 78.1 14.7 2.3 0.0 5.5 0.19 Tidemann et al. 1992  
Chestnut-breasted finch Passerine 19 Wild 91.3 6.4 0.2 0.0 1.8 0.07 Tidemann et al. 1992  
Gouldian finch Passerine 77 Wild 84.8 12.6 0.9 0.0 3.6 0.15 Tidemann et al. 1992  
Average for all passerines - - - 74.0 16.2 3.9 3.3 2.7 0.27 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 14.8 11.7 3.1 4.5 2.7 0.33 -  
Dove Pigeon/Dove 45 Clinic/Rehab 51.9 54.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.04 Fudge 1998  
Pigeon Pigeon/Dove 40 Captive 75.9 19.3 0.1 1.8 3.4 0.25 Scope et al. 2002  
Pigeon Pigeon/Dove 20 Captive 57.9 38.9 1.5 0.9 0.7 0.67 Lashev et al. 2009  
African collared dove Pigeon/Dove 18 Captive 47.7 44.5 3.6 2.4 1.2 1.05 Lashev et al. 2009  
Collared dove Pigeon/Dove 14 Wild 53.5 41.7 2.1 1.5 0.5 0.76 Lashev et al. 2009  
Average for all pigeons - - - 57.4 39.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 0.76 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 11.0 12.8 1.5 0.9 1.3 0.33 -  
Bald Eagle Raptor 21 Wild 38.0 44.0 13.0 0.0 0.0 1.16 Bowerman et al. 2000  
Bald Eagle Raptor 18 Clinic/Rehab 23.9 69.6 1.2 0.0 0.0 2.91 Fudge 1998  
Golden Eagle Raptor 5 Captive 34.2 58.8 2.3 0.2 4.3 1.72 Polo et al. 1992  
Great-horned owl Raptor 18 Clinic/Rehab 28.0 69.2 4.6 0.0 0.0 2.47 Fudge 1998  
Harris's Hawk Raptor 6 Captive 29.2 46.2 21.6 2.3 5.9 1.58 Parga et al. 2001  
Imperial Eagle Raptor 12 Captive 30.8 60.6 6.9 0.0 1.3 1.97 Polo et al. 1992  
Peregrine Falcon Raptor 6 Captive 14.7 79.1 0.0 3.9 2.3 5.38 Parga et al. 2001  
Peregrine Falcon Raptor 32 Wild 34.9 61.1 2.2 0.1 1.5 1.75 del Pilar Lanzarot et al. 2001  
Red-tailed Hawk Raptor 13 Clinic 34.1 49.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.46 Fudge 1998  
Tawny Owl Raptor 10 Clinic/Rehab 40.6 42.8 12.7 2.0 1.8 1.05 Spagnolo et al. 2008  
Saker Falcon Raptor 25 Clinic/Rehab 23.3 72.6 0.0 1.4 3.7 3.11 Samour et al. 1996  
Marsh Harrier Raptor   Clinic/Rehab 12.4 81.4 5.7 1.9 3.4 6.56 Lavin et al. 1992  
Common Kestrel Raptor 16 Clinic/Rehab 43.8 48.8 0.0 6.9 1.8 1.14 Shen et al. 2008  
Montagu's Harrier Raptor 14 Wild 48.5 31.2 16.0 0.0 2.6 0.64 Liminana et al. 2009 All nestlings
Montagu's Harrier Raptor 5 Clinic/Rehab 17.2 71.4 11.8 0.0 3.0 4.15 Lavin et al. 1993  
Average for all raptors - - - 27.8 62.1 6.3 0.9 2.1 2.71 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 9.0 13.2 6.7 1.3 1.9 1.70 -  
Ancient Murrelet Seabird 9 Wild 69.0 21.0 9.0 1.0 2.0 0.30 Newman et al. 1997  
Brown Booby Seabird 35 Wild 11.2 72.0 10.6 2.1 4.2 6.45 Work 1999  
Crested Auklet Seabird 7 Wild 70.0 22.0 4.0 1.0 4.0 0.31 Newman et al. 1997  
Great Frigatebird Seabird 10 Wild 11.9 70.7 16.8 0.2 0.2 5.93 Work 1996  
Great Skua Seabird 49 Wild 34.4 44.9 1.4 2.8 5.5 1.31 Bearhop et al. 1999  
Hawaiian Dark-rumped petrel Seabird 27 Wild 39.9 31.0 18.2 10.1 0.9 0.78 Work 1996  
Horned Puffin Seabird 18 Wild 57.0 32.0 7.0 1.0 4.0 0.56 Newman et al. 1997  
Laysan Albatross Seabird 20 Wild 19.5 52.3 22.5 5.6 0.1 2.69 Work 1996  
Marbled Murrelet Seabird 11 Wild 63.0 26.0 9.0 2.0 1.0 0.41 Newman et al. 1997  
Northern Fulmar Seabird 5 Wild 56.0 29.0 13.0 0.0 2.0 0.52 Newman et al. 1997  
Parakeet Auklet Seabird 21 Wild 59.0 37.0 2.0 0.0 2.0 0.63 Newman et al. 1997  
Pigeon Guillemont Seabird 9 Wild 47.0 47.0 5.0 0.0 1.0 1.00 Newman et al. 1997  
Pigeon Guillemont Seabird 17 Wild 37.0 61.0 0.7 1.1 0.0 1.65 Seiser et al. 2000  
Red-fotted Booby Seabird 35 Wild 32.9 57.8 5.8 1.6 1.9 1.76 Work 1996  
Red-tailed Tropicbird Seabird 52 Wild 27.1 53.4 18.3 1.0 0.3 1.97 Work 1996  
Tufted Puffin Seabird 30 Wild 57.0 37.0 4.0 1.0 3.0 0.65 Newman et al. 1997  
Waved Albatross Seabird 50 Wild 30.5 66.1 1.7 0.0 1.7 2.17 Padilla et al. 2003  
Wedge-tailed shearwater Seabird 45 Wild 71.1 22.0 2.6 1.7 2.5 0.31 Work 1996  
South polar skua Seabird 162 Wild 45.8 51.2 0.1 2.1 0.8 1.52 Kursa and Bezrukov 2007  
Little Auk Seabird 23 Wild 38.0 37.0 9.0 5.0 8.0 0.97 Jakubas et al. 2008 males, early incubation
Average for all seabirds - - - 44.2 43.9 8.0 1.8 2.0 1.63 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 19.1 16.9 6.8 2.4 1.6 1.76 -  
California Condor Vulture/Condor 9 Reared 24.0 70.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.95 Dujowich et al. 2005  
California Condor Vulture/Condor 29 Reared 22.9 68.2 5.1 1.3 3.2 2.97 Dujowich et al. 2005  
Common Buzzard Vulture/Condor 23 Captive 35.7 36.6 21.6 1.7 4.0 1.02 Spagnolo et al. 2006  
Egyptian Vulture Vulture/Condor 5 Captive 27.3 69.8 2.0 0.4 0.5 2.56 Polo et al. 1992  
Griffon Vulture Vulture/Condor 12 Captive 40.7 57.8 0.9 0.0 0.6 1.42 Polo et al. 1992  
Average for all vultures - - - 30.1 60.6 6.3 1.0 2.0 2.18 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 7.8 14.4 8.7 0.8 1.5 0.90 -  
Puna Ibis Wading bird 14 Captive 62.0 21.0 1.0 12.0 7.0 0.34 Coke et al. 2004  
White stork Wading bird 7 Wild 20.4 72.3 4.8 0.5 1.9 3.54 Alonso et al. 1991  
White Ibis Wading bird 10 Captive 89.7 8.5 0.9 0.3 0.5 0.09 Aengwanich and Tanomtong 2004  
Painted Stork Wading bird 10 Captive 76.1 10.6 12.0 1.0 0.0 0.14 Aengwanich et al. 2002  
Greater Flamingo Wading bird 24 Captive 34.0 58.0 1.3 3.0 0.0 1.71 Hawkey et al. 1985  
Greater Flamingo Wading bird 32 Captive 60.5 25.7 10.8 0.6 2.3 0.42 Puerta et al. 1992  
Lesser Flamingo Wading bird 10 Captive 21.0 77.0 0.0 1.2 1.4 3.67 Hawkey et al. 1985  
Chilean Flamingo Wading bird 24 Captive 45.0 45.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 1.00 Hawkey et al. 1984  
Purple Heron Wading bird 4 Zoo 40.3 55.5 1.2 0.5 2.5 1.38 Celdran et al. 1994  
Spoonbill Wading bird 24 Zoo 39.3 57.5 0.8 0.3 2.1 1.46 Celdran et al. 1994  
Glossy Ibis Wading bird 12 Zoo 40.1 57.2 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.43 Celdran et al. 1994  
Night Heron Wading bird 48 Zoo 29.4 68.9 0.8 0.0 0.8 2.34 Celdran et al. 1994  
Little Egret Wading bird 28 Zoo 31.8 65.1 0.6 0.5 1.8 2.05 Celdran et al. 1994  
Cattle Egret Wading bird 16 Zoo 41.3 56.2 0.9 0.6 1.0 1.36 Celdran et al. 1994  
Average for all wading birds - - - 45.1 48.5 2.9 1.7 1.6 1.50 -  
Standard Deviation - - - 20.2 22.8 3.9 3.1 1.8 1.13 -  
Chicken Poultry/Galliform 10 Captive 83.7 14.5 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.17 Bedáňová et al. 2007 Control values only
10-week old chicks Poultry/Galliform 8 Captive 72.0 24.0 0.6 1.4 2.0 0.33 Peebles et al. 2004 Control values only
Chicken Poultry/Galliform 20 Captive 63.0 30.1 2.5 1.3 3.1 0.48 Branton et al. 1997 Control values only
Chicken Poultry/Galliform 20 Captive 70.1 17.8 2.8 2.3 7.1 0.25 Latimer et al. 1988 Control values only
Chicken Poultry/Galliform 40 Captive 73.5 17.5 3.7 2.3 2.9 0.24 Altan et al. 2000 Control values only
Wild Turkey Poultry/Galliform 42 Wild 46.0 37.0 3.1 8.7 5.1 0.81 Forbes et al. unpubl. data All males, averaged across 3 sites in TX
Peacock Poultry/Galliform 30 Wild 40.3 52.7 4.0 1.2 3.6 1.52 Møller and Petrie 2002 All males
Sage Grouse Poultry/Galliform 151 Wild 62.0 36.0 0.2 1.0 1.0 0.58 Dunbar et al. 2005
 
Sage Grouse Poultry/Galliform 63 Wild 79.0 19.6 1.4 0.3 0.9 0.25 Dyer et al. 2010  
Average for all poultry/galliforms       63.8 28.7 2.2 2.3 3.2 0.55    
Standard Deviation       14.5 12.9 1.5 2.6 2.1 0.45    
Purple Gallinule Waterbird 10 Zoo 36.2 61.2 1.0 0.2 1.6 1.69 Celdran et al. 1994  

 

Reference List for Avian Leukocyte Profiles

Acquarone, C., M. Cucco, and G. Malacarne. 2001. Body condition, immunocompetent organs, and blood parameters in the hooded crow. Israel Journal of Zoology 47: 287-294.

Aengwanich, W., and A. Tanomtong. 2004. Hematological and serum biochemical values of white ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus). Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 26: 823-828.

Aengwanich, W., A. Tanomtong, R. Pattanarungson, and S. Simaraks. 2002. Blood cell characteristic, hematological and serum biochemistry values of Painted Stork (Mycteria leucocephala). Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 24: 473-479.

Alonso, J.C., V. Huecas, J.A. Alonso, M. Abelenda, R. Munozpulido, and M.L. Puerta. 1991. Hematology and blood chemistry of adult white storks (Ciconia ciconia). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Physiology 98: 395-397.

Altan, O., A. Altan, M. Cabuk, and H. Bayraktar. 2000. Effects of heat stress on some blood parameters in broilers. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Animal Science 24: 145-148.

Averbeck, C. 1992. Haematology and blood chemistry of healthy and clinically abnormal Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) and Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus). Avian Pathology 21: 215-223.

Bedáňová, I., E. Voslářová, V. Večerek, V. Pištěková, and P. Chloupek. 2007. Haematological profile of broiler chickens under acute stress due to shackling. Acta Veterinaria Brno 76: 129-135.

Bowerman, W.W., J.E. Stickle, J.G. Sikarskie, and J.P. Giesy. 2000. Hematology and serum chemistries of nestling bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the lower peninsula of MI, USA. Chemosphere 41: 1575-1579.

Branton, S.L., J.D. May, B.D. Lott, and W.R. Maslin. 1997. Various blood parameters in commercial hens acutely and chronically infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae. Avian Diseases 41: 540-547.

Celdran, J., F.J. Polo, V.I. Peinado, G. Viscor, and J. Palomeque. 1994. Hematology of captive herons, egrets, spoonbill, ibis and gallinule. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Physiology 107: 337-341.

Coke, R.L., G.D. West, and J.P. Hoover. 2004. Hematology and plasma biochemistry of captive puna ibis (Plegadis ridgewayi). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40: 141-144.

D'Aloia, M.A., J.H. Samour, T.A. Bailey, J. Naldo, and J.C. Howlett. 1996. Normal haematology of the white-bellied (Eupodotis senegalensis), little black (Eupodotis afra) and Heuglin's (Neotis heuglinii) bustards. Comparative Haematology International 6: 46-49.

Davis, A.K., K.C. Cook, and S. Altizer. 2004. Leukocyte profiles of House Finches with and without mycoplasmal conjunctivitis, a recently emerged bacterial disease. Ecohealth 1: 362-373.

Davis, A.K., N.E. Diggs, P.P. Marra, and R.J. Cooper. 2008. Hematological stress indices show no effect of radio-transmitters on wintering Hermit Thrushes. Journal of Field Ornithology 79: 293-297.

Dujowich, M., J.K. Mazet, and J.R. Zuba. 2005. Hematologic and biochemical reference ranges for captive California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36: 590-597.

Dunbar, M. R., M. A. Gregg, J. A. Crawford, M. R. Giordano, and S. J. Tornquist. 2005. Normal hematologic and biochemical values for prelaying greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and their influence on chick survival. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 36: 422-429.

Dyer, K. J., B. L. Perryman, and D. W. Holcombe. 2010. Site and age class variation of hematologic parameters for female greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) of northern Nevada. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46: 1-12.

Fiorello, C. V., I. C. T. Nisbet, J. J. Hatch, C. Corsiglia, and M. A. Pokras. 2009. Hematology and absence of hemoparasites in breeding common terns (Sterna hirundo) from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40: 409-413.

Figuerola, J., E. Munoz, R. Gutierrez, and D. Ferrer. 1999. Blood parasites, leucocytes and plumage brightness in the Cirl Bunting, Emberiza cirlus. Functional Ecology 13: 594-601.

Fudge, A.M. 2000. Avian complete blood count, pp. 9-18. In A. M. Fudge [ed.], Laboratory medicine. Avian and exotic pets. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

Grasman, K.A., P.F. Scanlon, and G.A. Fox. 2000. Geographic variation in hematological variables in adult and prefledgling herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and possible associations with organochlorine exposure. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 38: 244-253.

Hauptmanova, K., I. Literak, and E. Bartova. 2002. Haematology and leukocytozoonosis of Great Tits (Parus major L.) during winter. Acta Vet. Brno 71: 199-204.

Hauptmanova, K., V. Barus, I. Literak, and V. Benedikt. 2004. Haemoproteids and microfilariae in hawfinches in the Czech Republic. Helminthologia 41: 125-133.

Hawkey, C., M.G. Hart, and H.J. Samour. 1984. Age related hematological changes and hemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis). Avian Pathology 13: 223-229.

Hawkey, C., J.H. Samour, D.G. Ashton, M.G. Hart, R.N. Cindery, J.M. Ffinch, and D.M. Jones. 1983. Normal and clinical hematology of captive cranes (Gruiformes). Avian Pathology 12: 73-84.

Hawkey, C.M., M.G. Hart, and H.J. Samour. 1985. Normal and clinical hematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor). Avian Pathology 14: 537-541.

Howlett, J.C., J.H. Samour, T.A. Bailey, and J.L. Naldo. 1998. Age-related haematology changes in captive-reared kori bustards (Ardeotis kori). Comparative Haematology International 8: 26-30.

Howlett, J.C., T.A. Bailey, J.H. Samour, J.L. Naldo, and M.A. D'Aloia. 2002. Age-related hematologic changes in captive-reared houbara, white-bellied, and rufous-crested bustards. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38: 804-816.

Jakubas, D., K. Wojczulanis-Jakubas, and R. Kreft. 2008. Sex differences in body condition and hematological parameters in Little Auk Alle alle during the incubation period. Ornis Fennica 85: 90-97.

Kursa, M., and V. Bezrukov. 2007. Health status in an Antarctic top predator: micronuclei frequency and white blood cell differentials in the south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). Polarforschung 77: 1-5.

Lanzarot, M.D., A. Montesinos, M.I. San Andres, C. Rodriguez, and M.V. Barahona. 2001. Hematological, protein electrophoresis and cholinesterase values of free-living nestling peregrine falcons in Spain. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 37: 172-177.

Lashev, L., H. Hubenov, Y. Nikolov, V. Lasheva, and R. Mihailov. 2009. Comparison of some haematological parameters between three bird species from the Columbidae family - short communication. Veterinarski Arhiv 79: 409-414.

Latimer, K.S., K.N. Tang, M.A. Goodwin, W.L. Steffens, and J. Brown. 1988. Leukocyte changes associated with acute inflammation in chickens. Avian Diseases 32: 760-772.

Lavin, S., R. Cuenca, I. Marco, J. Pastor, and L. Vinas. 1993. Hematological values of Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Physiology 105: 103-104.

Liminana, R., J. R. Lopez-Olvera, M. Gallardo, M. Fordham, and V. Urios. 2009. Blood chemistry and hematologic values in free-living nestlings of montagu's harriers (Circus pygargus) in a natural habitat. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40: 687-695.

Maney, D.L., A.K. Davis, C.T. Goode, A. Reid, and C. Showalter. 2008. Carotenoid-based plumage coloration predicts leukocyte parameters during the breeding season in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) Ethology 114: 369-380.

Møller, A. P., and M. Petrie. 2002. Condition dependence, multiple sexual signals, and immunocompetence in peacocks. Behavioral Ecology 13: 248-253.

Nava, M.P., J.P. Veiga, and M.L. Puerta. 2001. White blood cell counts in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) before and after moult and after testosterone treatment. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 145-148.

Newman, S.H., J.F. Piatt, and J. White. 1997. Hematological and plasma biochemical reference ranges of Alaskan seabirds: their ecological significance and clinical importance. Colonial Waterbirds 20: 492-504.

Padilla, L.R., K.P. Huyvaert, J. Merkel, R.E. Miller, and P.G. Parker. 2003. Hematology, plasma chemistry, serology, and Chlamydophila status of the waved albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) on the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34: 278-283.

Parga, M.L., H. Pendl, and N.A. Forbes. 2001. The effect of transport on hematologic parameters in trained and untrained Harris's Hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) and Perigrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 15: 162-169.

Peebles, E.D., T.A. Parker, S.L. Branton, K.O. Willeford, M.S. Jones, P.D. Gerard, G.T. Pharr, and W.R. Maslin. 2004. Effects of an S6 strain of Mycoplasma gallisepticum inoculation before beginning of lay on the leukocyte characteristics of commercial layers. Avian Diseases 48: 196-201.

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